Sapang is a small tree, with scattered spines. Leaves are compound, up to 50 centimeters long. Pinnae are about 20, opposite, and 10 to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are obliquely oblong to oblong-rhomboid. Flowers are yellow, on terminal panicles, with densely wooly filaments. Fruit is a hard, indehiscent, shiny pod, with a hard recurved beak at the upper angle.
– Locally abundant throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes in dry thickets, parang, etc.
– Introduced, and probably of prehistoric introduction.
– Also occurs in India through Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, southern China to Malaysia.
– Coloring matter of sappan wood appears to be identical to the brazilin obtained from brazilwood.
– Study yield a principle resembling haematein.
– Resinous extract yields a crystalline principle, which when fused with potash, yields resorcin.
– Besides brazilin, additional constituents include gallic and tannic acids.
– The coloring matter of sappan wood has been attributed to brazilin.
– Tannin is found in the leaves,19%, bark and fruit walls, 44%.
– Leaves yield volatile oil, 0.16 to 0.25%; d-a-phellandrene, terpene, and methyl alcohol.
– Pods contain 40% tannin.
– Seed on extraction with petroleum ether yield an orange colored fixed oil.
– Sapwood is white. Heartwood, 90% of the total volume, is yellow or deep orange when fresh, turning to dark red.
– Stem yields a gum.
– Bark, pods and roots yield dyes. Pods contain about 40% tannin. Roots yield a yellow dye.
– Study yielded isoflavonoids from the dried heartwood.
– Considered emmenagogue, astringent, sedative, stomachic, tonic, vulnerary.
– Studies have suggested anti-anaphylactic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticomplementary, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunostimulant properties.
Bark, wood, heartwoood, and seeds.
– Decoction of wood and bark used for tuberculosis, atonic diarrhea, dysentery, postpartum tonic, skin infections, wounds, ulcers, and anemia.
– Seeds used for stomach aches and nervous disorders.
– Decoction of wood used by women as tonic after confinement; also used as emmenagogue and and for vomiting of blood.
– Dried heartwood used against inflammation.
– Decoction is used as diuretic.
– Roots, stems and seeds used as sedative and vulnerary.
– In Indo-China, seeds used as stomachic. Wood decoction used as emmenagogue.
– In Thailand, used for arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory complaints.
– In Ayurveda, useful in vitiated conditions of Pitta, burning sensations, wounds, ulcers, leprosy, skin diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, and diabetes.
– In Unani medicine, used to stop bleeding from chest and lung, for wound healing, to treat rheumatism, and to improve the complexion.
– In Keral, decoction of heartwood used for blood purifying, antithirst, and anti-diabetic properties.
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